Placed under the regency of Philip of Orleans, who died in 1723, the year he reached the royal majority, Louis XV governed under the authority of the Duke of Bourbon. Fearing a rise to power by the House of Orléans, in 1725 the Duke married him to the daughter of the deposed King of Poland, Queen Marie Leszczynska, who gave him ten children.
In 1726, Louis XV replaced the Duke with his former private tutor, the Cardinal of Fleury, who remained at the head of the Ministry until his death (at the age of 90) in 1743. During this prosperous period, Fleury improved finances, practised a policy of return to Colbertism, favouring colonial trade and taxation, and entered the Polish War of Succession, which gave Lorraine to France.
On the death of Fleury, Louis XV (aged 33) took the decision to rule alone. Production and artistic creativity were high, particularly spurred on by the king's favourite, the Marchioness of Pompadour. Abroad, the Austrian War of Succession (1740) and the Seven Year War (1756-1763), both very unpopular, sacrificed France's colonial interests without favouring its European interests.
Within France, Parliamentary opposition was rife. In 1770, the triumvirate of Maupeou, Terray and d'Aiguillon attempted to restore royal authority and the Parliaments were dismissed. However, these authoritarian measures came too late.By the end of his 59-year reign, Louis XV the Well-Beloved was not very beloved at all.